The challenge of estuarine management is to maintain existing estuarine natural structure and functioning, to rectify historical damage and negative impacts of human actions which produced socio-economic problems, and at the same time to guarantee present and future economic development. Applying a multidisciplinary and functional, holistic approach is essential to maintain a healthy natural system. Scientists and managers are searching for measures to adapt the ecosystem in such a way that flood risk is decreased, harbour activities can further develop and nature is conserved. This literature review (including 286 publications) gives an overview of a broad range of management measures that are, or can be, applied for estuarine management, including measures to change hydrology, morphology, habitat, and water and sediment quality. Furthermore, the differences between the different management measures regarding its impact on ecosystem services and biodiversity are identified to detect which management measures can contribute to specific estuarine targets. By looking for trade-offs and synergies, opportunities to reduce management costs and increase benefits to society are revealed. This can help to develop an integrated management strategy among the many management departments and with respect to both ecological and socio-economic needs.
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